The rapid development of the real estate industry and the continuous rise in housing prices have made more and more real estate developers join this wealth race. This has further stimulated the vigorous development of the real estate industry. Among the many real estate companies, some companies who enter the industry purely for the purpose of pursuing high profits "speculation" are even more confused. Because of the existence of these enterprises, the importance of steel structure building design is highlighted, and many problems are urgently needed to be resolved.
First, Overview of steel structure building design
The architectural structure design is a prerequisite for ensuring the safety of the building being constructed. Designing an excellent building, structural design is related to the safety and stability of the building and is the top priority in architectural design.
The architectural design can be roughly divided into five stages:
1. Design preparation stage
In the preparation stage of architectural design, a qualified architectural designer is required to be familiar with national and international design code standards. The standardized design of various stress parameters is the basis for ensuring the safety and stability of buildings;
2. Design plan
The design plan of the building structure must conform to the basic building structure design principles, cover all aspects of the building process, and must fully consider the weather factors, wind factors, basic needs, lighting needs and other factors of the location of the building;
3. Preliminary design
Make a preliminary design of the building structure in the plan according to the determined design plan;
4. Technical design stage
On the basis of the preliminary design, design the technical details of the key technologies;
5. Construction drawing design stage
After all the above processes are approved, the construction drawings can be designed. The construction drawing is the blueprint before the building is formed. Any omission will cause irreparable damage to the building. Therefore, designers are required to carefully check each link.
The architectural structure design is actually the building designer who gives the building a skeleton. The strength of the skeleton and the beauty of the body will determine the state of the entire building after completion.
Second, Problems in architectural steel structure design
1. The floor plan stiffness design has errors
In the process of floor plan stiffness design, the most popular and labor-saving method is to use the existing floor deformation procedure. Although these programs are all formed software, because these programs do not include the influencing factors in the actual design process, some errors will inevitably occur. The error of floor plane stiffness will in turn cause big problems in the whole structural design, leading to unsafe factors in the structural design.
2. Cracks in beams of shear wall
In the design process of load-bearing structures, rational and scientific design must be carried out in accordance with the principles of mechanics and architectural codes, and then the aesthetic design. Now some architects are blindly pursuing the overall beautiful visual effect of the building, and sometimes even ignore the balance of the carrying beam. Once the load-bearing design of a certain layer is not balanced, there will be cracks in the shear wall beam.
3. Problems with roof beams and reinforcement
When designing on the top floor of a building, almost all designers usually make mistakes in order to save time, only to apply the design of the layer below the top floor, and remove some reinforcement in the design process. As everyone knows, this gives the roof beam an increased chance of cracking under the influence of temperature changes and other factors.
Third, Design principles of the steel structure building
The principle of the architectural design means that the designer can use the most advanced technology to design with the most economical, reasonable and scientific method on the basis of meeting the functional requirements under the norms of architectural design standards. The specific design rules in the design process are as follows: the safety of building structure design
We all know that safety is the first priority in any production activity, and the design of building structures is no exception. The building structure will be deformed by various loads in the process of use, and sometimes it will encounter some accidental events, such as: strong winds, earthquakes and other natural phenomena. Under the impact of these external forces, the building structure should still maintain its overall stability, and it must not collapse and break due to local damage. Therefore, the design of building structure must follow the principle of safety.
Applicability of architectural structure design
The construction of the building is to meet the needs of people's life or production. Therefore, when designing the building structure, it must be considered that it has good applicability, so as to achieve the original construction purpose.
Security level design
In general, in building design codes, building structures can be divided into three safety levels according to the consequences caused by structural damage, the economic losses caused, the adverse effects, and the severity of life-threatening people. In the design of building structures, a comprehensive assessment is required to determine their safety level. In general, the security level of each component is consistent with the entire structure, but it also allows appropriate adjustments based on actual conditions.
The durability of building structure design
Both construction volume and investment of construction funds are generally relatively large, so short-term reconstruction or rebuilding is unnecessary, which will cause huge economic losses to the country. Therefore, the issue of service life must be considered when designing the building structure. That is, buildings designed according to regulations, under the premise of normal construction and first-level maintenance, ensure that the expected service life can be achieved without major repairs. The service life of building structures is generally 50 years.
Any structure has a certain tolerance limit, and problems will occur once this limit value is exceeded during use. The limit value of the building structure refers to the limit of its bearing capacity. If the building structure exceeds its maximum bearing capacity, deformation or fatigue failure will occur.
forth, Key points of architectural steel structure design
1. Building structure design should try to meet the needs of the building
If the building is a faucet and the building layout is like a human soul, then the building structure is the human skeleton, so in the process of building structure design, we must pay attention to the overall needs of the building, can not be separated, otherwise the building structure design Lost its meaning.
2. Choose building materials
For a building, the material is the foundation, so the quality and performance of the material directly affect the quality of the entire building and its later use. It is also clearly stated in China's building structure codes and other related requirements. When designing the building structure, we should consider the materials selected.
3. Focus on overall interests
An optimal building structure design not only controls the amount of materials, but also more importantly depends on the overall benefits, such as: whether the construction is convenient; whether the structure of the structure of the building is neat, the transmission of the force should be direct; the structure is in To meet the stability requirements, it must also have sufficient rigidity requirements, and pay attention to not produce cracks; to ensure that the service life is durable enough, and it is also convenient to maintain.
4. Earthquake resistance calculation. In the design of building structures, when checking earthquake resistance, different layouts must be calculated using different theories and cannot be generalized.
5. In line with a larger economic scope. The design of the building structure is now very standardized, so it must also meet a larger economic range. For example: in the building structure, the height of the beam changes, then the cost of the beam will also change with the change, the cost of the beam and the height of the beam There is a curve relationship between them. From a mathematical point of view, the flattest part of the curve is its minimum cost value.
6. Special attention should be paid to distinguish the types of site soil during the seismic calculation. If it is 8 degrees and the building height exceeds 5 floors, it is necessary to increase the shear wall as much as possible, which can improve the seismic resistance of the structure. The concrete grades of the beams and columns of the frame are preferably different by one grade.
7. In the frame structure of the building, because the elevator position is relatively small, if the ladder shaft uses a concrete structure wall, the rigidity of the wall will be very large, so if there is no shear wall elsewhere, the overall structure or the ladder will be The well has an adverse effect, so it is best to use clay bricks for the elevator shaft wall. It should be noted that the brick wall cannot be used as a load-bearing support.
8. If the beam or lintel cross-section of the building structure is relatively large due to some reasons, the minimum reinforcement ratio of the component should be checked.
Conclusion: The building structure has become a necessity in our lives and production. The design level of the building structure directly affects the economic development. Moreover, once the design of the building structure is unreasonable, it will cause huge economic losses and even pose a threat to people's lives and property. Therefore, it is very important to design the building structure well.