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Connection Between Columns And Beams in Steel Structure

- Jul 26, 2019 -
When dealing with connected nodes in steel structure building, the following basic principles are required:
Safe and reliable. The force analysis should be as close as possible to the actual working condition, and the calculation sketch should be consistent with or close to the actual connection condition of the component; the joint should have a clear force transmission route and reliable construction guarantee.
Easy to make, transport and install. Reduce the type of nodes; the size of the splicing should leave room for adjustment; try to facilitate the operation during construction, such as: avoiding the overhead welding of the site weld, setting the installation support.
Economical and reasonable. The most economical method is determined after comprehensive consideration of materials, production, construction, etc., not be simply understood as the savings in steel consumption.
Beam-column connections can be divided into three types: flexible connection (hinged), rigid joint, and semi-rigid according to the different rotational stiffness.
1. The flexible connection of the beam and column (the connection between the axial column and the beam is generally hinged)
A. Beam supported on the top of the column
Figure a: The bearing reaction force of the beam is transmitted directly to the flange of the column. A gap is left between adjacent beams so that there is room for adjustment during installation. The transmission force is clear, the structure is simple, and the construction is convenient. However, when the reaction forces of two adjacent beams are different, the eccentric compression of the column is caused. When the reaction force transmitted by one side beam is large, local buckling of the column flange may be caused.

Figure b: Even if the reaction forces of the two adjacent beams are not equal, the column is still close to the axis. The bottom of the flange stiffener should be flattened to the top of the column; the column web is the main force part, and its thickness should not be too thin; under the top of the column, stiffeners should be provided, and the stiffener should have sufficient length to meet Weld length requirements and uniform stress spread requirements.
B  The Beam is supported on the column side
Figure a: When the reaction force of the beam is small, the beam can be placed without any supporting stiffeners. It is placed directly on the ox leg of the column and connected by ordinary bolts. The structure is simple and the construction is convenient.
Figure b: Used when the beam reaction force is large. The reaction force of the beam is transmitted to the support by the end stiffener; the support is made of thick steel plate (the thickness of which should be greater than the thickness of the stiffener) or the angled steel after the stiffening, and is connected with the weld on the column side.
Figure c: When the difference between the reaction forces of the two adjacent beams is large. The reaction force of the beam is transmitted through the web of the column, so that the column is still close to the axial stress state.
 2. Rigid connection of beams and columns (frame beams and columns are generally rigidly connected)
The following requirements must be met:
Ensure that the bending moment and shearing force of the beam segment are reliably transmitted to the column; the rigidity of the joint is ensured, so that the connection does not produce obvious relative rotation angle; the structure is simple and convenient for construction.
Figure a, b: The bending moment and shear force are transmitted directly to the column through the weld. It can be considered that the beam end bending moment is transmitted from the flange joint weld to the column, and the shear force is transmitted from the web weld to the column.
In order to enable the flange joint weld to be welded in the flat weld position, the liner is welded on the column side, and at the same time, a notch is reserved at the end of the beam web, and the upper notch is the position of the liner, the lower notch It is to meet the welding requirements.
Figure c, d: The beam end bending moment and shear force are transmitted to the column by high-strength bolts and welds. Since the force is transmitted to the column through the connecting plate and the angle steel, it is a structure of indirect force transmission.
The transverse stiffeners may be provided in the range of the beam connected to the H column as shown in Figs. b and d, or may be omitted as shown in Figs. a and c. In the latter case, the strength and stability of the column web and the flange are checked.

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